ORACLE SQL性能优化系列 (十一)

2/9/2008来源:Oracle教程人气:7626

Oracle SQL性能优化系列 (十一) 
36. 用UNION替换OR (适用于索引列) 通常情况下, 用UNION替换WHERE子句中的OR将会起到较好的效果. 对索引列使用OR将造成全表扫描. 注重, 以上规则只针对多个索引列有效. 假如有column没有被索引, 查询效率可能会因为你没有选择OR而降低. 在下面的例子中, LOC_ID 和REGION上都建有索引. 高效: SELECT LOC_ID , LOC_DESC , REGION FROM LOCATION WHERE LOC_ID = 10 UNION SELECT LOC_ID , LOC_DESC , REGION FROM LOCATION WHERE REGION = “MELBOURNE”   低效: SELECT LOC_ID , LOC_DESC , REGION FROM LOCATION WHERE LOC_ID = 10 OR REGION = “MELBOURNE”   假如你坚持要用OR, 那就需要返回记录最少的索引列写在最前面.   注重:   WHERE KEY1 = 10 (返回最少记录) OR KEY2 = 20 (返回最多记录)   ORACLE 内部将以上转换为 WHERE KEY1 = 10 AND ((NOT KEY1 = 10) AND KEY2 = 20)   译者按:   下面的测试数据仅供参考: (a = 1003 返回一条记录 , b = 1 返回1003条记录) SQL> select * from unionvsor /*1st test*/ 2 where a = 1003 or b = 1; 1003 rows selected. Execution Plan ---------------------------------------------------------- 0 SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE 1 0 CONCATENATION 2 1 TABLE access (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR' 3 2 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UB' (NON-UNIQUE) 4 1 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR' 5 4 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UA' (NON-UNIQUE) Statistics ---------------------------------------------------------- 0 recursive calls 0 db block gets 144 consistent gets 0 physical reads 0 redo size 63749 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client 7751 bytes received via SQL*Net from client 68 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client 0 sorts (memory) 0 sorts (disk) 1003 rows PRocessed SQL> select * from unionvsor /*2nd test*/ 2 where b = 1 or a = 1003 ; 1003 rows selected. Execution Plan ---------------------------------------------------------- 0 SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE 1 0 CONCATENATION 2 1 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR' 3 2 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UA' (NON-UNIQUE) 4 1 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR' 5 4 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UB' (NON-UNIQUE) Statistics ---------------------------------------------------------- 0 recursive calls 0 db block gets 143 consistent gets 0 physical reads 0 redo size 63749 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client 7751 bytes received via SQL*Net from client
68 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client 0 sorts (memory) 0 sorts (disk) 1003 rows processed   SQL> select * from unionvsor /*3rd test*/ 2 where a = 1003 3 union 4 select * from unionvsor 5 where b = 1; 1003 rows selected. Execution Plan ---------------------------------------------------------- 0 SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE 1 0 SORT (UNIQUE) 2 1 UNION-ALL 3 2 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR' 4 3 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UA' (NON-UNIQUE) 5 2 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR' 6 5 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UB' (NON-UNIQUE) Statistics ---------------------------------------------------------- 0 recursive calls 0 db block gets 10 consistent gets 0 physical reads 0 redo size 63735 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client 7751 bytes received via SQL*Net from client 68 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client 1 sorts (memory) 0 sorts (disk) 1003 rows processed 用UNION的效果可以从consistent gets和 SQL*NET的数据交换量的减少看出   37. 用IN来替换OR   下面的查询可以被更有效率的语句替换:   低效:   SELECT…. FROM LOCATION WHERE LOC_ID = 10 OR LOC_ID = 20 OR LOC_ID = 30   高效 SELECT… FROM LOCATION WHERE LOC_IN IN (10,20,30);   译者按: 这是一条简单易记的规则,但是实际的执行效果还须检验,在ORACLE8i下,两者的执行路径似乎是相同的.      38. 避免在索引列上使用IS NULL和IS NOT NULL 避免在索引中使用任何可以为空的列,ORACLE将无法使用该索引 .对于单列索引,假如列包含空值,索引中将不存在此记录. 对于复合索引,假如每个列都为空,索引中同样不存在此记录. 假如至少有一个列不为空,则记录存在于索引中. 举例: 假如唯一性索引建立在表的A列和B列上, 并且表中存在一条记录的A,B值为(123,null) , ORACLE将不接受下一条具有相同A,B值(123,null)的记录(插入). 然而假如 所有的索引列都为空,ORACLE将认为整个键值为空而空不等于空. 因此你可以插入1000 条具有相同键值的记录,当然它们都是空!   因为空值不存在于索引列中,所以WHERE子句中对索引列进行空值比较将使ORACLE停用该索引. 举例:   低效: (索引失效) SELECT … FROM DEPARTMENT WHERE DEPT_CODE IS NOT NULL;   高效: (索引有效) SELECT … FROM DEPARTMENT WHERE DEPT_CODE >=0;